Index P - Z

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A - E   F - O


Paced Bottle Feeding: (See Bottle Feeding)

    Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine: Pacifiers and Breastfeeding
    Additional  resources/information on Pacifiers   
            La Leche League International
    California Model Hospital Policy #7: 
        Artificial nipples and pacifiers should be discouraged for healthy breastfeeding infants.

    Baby Friendly Hospital Policy #9: Give no pacifiers or artificial nipples to breastfeeding infants.
Pediatrics (the journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics) 

Pasteurization of Human Milk (i.e. for HIV+ women) 

Peer Counselor Resources
    California WIC Breastfeeding Peer Counselor Training
    USDA Loving Support Breastfeeding Peer Counselor Training 
       updated in 2011 - English and Spanish
     Modules for additional Peer Counselor training:
        Hale Publications       
    Modules for additional Peer Counselor training:
Hale Publications    
    New York State: 
Breastfeeding Partners
Breastfeeding Materials: Barbara Wilson-Clay and Kay Hoover 

Photographs - Consent to Photograph  
     Example of a consent - (Bilingual, English/Spanish) (

Platypus Media -- Books for Families, Teachers and Parenting Professionals,
           Dia L Michels 

Position Papers 
     Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (2008) (PDF)
     American Academy of Pediatrics (2012) 
     American Academy of Family Practitioners (2014) 
    See additional ones: List at US Breastfeeding Coalition Website

Pregnancy Preparation  for Breastfeeding  
    Pregnancy Checklist
     Solano County Baby and Me Meetings
     Solano County Resources


Premature Baby

    San Diego: Supporting Premature Infant Nutrition (SPIN) UC San Diego Hospital
            Premature infants who receive human breast milk have the best outcomes
                —medically, nutritionally, and developmentally. 
        The Supporting Premature Infant Nutrition (SPIN) program was developed to address 
        the challenges of helping mothers produce sufficient breast milk for their 
        premature infants, and to improve the manner in which 
        neonatal intensive care unit (NICUs) support optimal nutrition and growth 
        in their most vulnerable population of patients. 

    On-line Videos: 
            United Kingdom: Ways of supporting your sick or premature baby 
            A Preemie Needs His Mother: First Steps to Breastfeeding Your Premature Baby
            Dr. Jane Morton - or call 1-888-JMORTON (566-7866).

     Transitioning Newborns from NICU to Home: A Resource Toolkit by the 
        Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality The toolkit provides resources for hospitals 
        that wish to improve safety when newborns transition home from their neonatal intensive 
        care unit (NICU) by creating a Health Coach Program, tools for coaches, and information 
        for parents and families of newborns who have spent time in the NICU

   Premature Baby: Late Preterm - 34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation
        Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine:
Breastfeeding the Late Preterm Infant - June 2011
        California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative (CPQCC)  
Care and Management of the Late Preterm Infant Toolkit (February 2013) 
Nutritional Support of the Very Low Birthweight Infant Toolkit (DECEMBER 2008)           
        National Perinatal Association
Multidisciplinary Team Guidelines

Prenatal Education (See Pregnancy Preparation)
    California Model Hospital Policy #3:The hospital will encourage medical staff to perform a 
        breast exam on all pregnant women and provide anticipatory guidance for conditions 
        that could affect breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers will have an assessment of the 
        breast prior to discharge and will receive anticipatory guidance regarding conditions 
        that might affect breastfeeding.

    Baby Friendly Hospital Policy: 
        Inform all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breastfeeding
        See Q & A on Step 3
   Carolina Global Breastfeeding Institute
         Ready, Set, BABY Materials Training
        Tools and Recommendations for Action (links to materials in English and Spanish)

Professional Education
American Academy of Pediatrics:
         Breastfeeding Residency Curriculum  
          Health Professionals Resource Guide  
          Academy Of Breastfeeding Medicine

        International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners (IBLCE)
          Information about becoming an IBCLC  

    California Breastfeeding Coalition 
Conferences and Programs 
    International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA): 
Directory of Course Providers
            Directory of Lactation Management Courses

   Lactation Education Accreditation and Approval Review Committee (LEAARC)
            Source for Course Provider to get approvals  

    United States Lactation Consultant Association (USLCA):  Education Resources

Protect Breastfeeding Poster

Proyecto Lacta -     
    Breastfeeding information in Spanish – Puerto Rico

Pharmasoft publishing :

Pumping - (see also "Breast Pumps") 
    Hands on Pumping Handout
    Hands on pumping video
UK Baby Friendly Guidelines - Breastmilk expression checklist

Pumping Logs 
    Record for mothers who are pumping for babies who do not breastfeed well or are in Intensive Care (

    La Leche League Pumping Log 

    UC San Diego logs - English and Spanish


Radiological Tests - (x-Ray, MRI, Ultrasound) usually no problem with breastfeeding
               Breastfeeding and Radiological Procedures
     Radio-contrast materials and breastfeeding
Breastfeeding and the Use of Contrast Dyes for Maternal Tests
               Poster with information about Contrast Dyes for Maternal Tests:
                    Download Poster Front (
PDF file
                    Download Poster Back (
PDF file
        Additional resources for MDs and Radiologists:
            Infant Risk Center: 806-352-2519 (Monday-Friday 9 am to 6 pm EST) 
Medications and Mothers' Milk (2012) by Thomas W. Hale, Phd, 
                clinical pharmacologist, professor at Texas Tech University School of Medicine

     Use of Radioisotopes (and other imaging agents) during lactation       

Relactation (See "Induced Lactation")
     Four Friends (Adoptive Breastfeeding Website):         
        Relactation stories

        Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies
        Relactation/Wet nursing: Relactation in difficult circumstances: rising to the challenge

Reverse Pressure Softening - to help mothers deal with Engorgement
         References: (
English) and Spanish 
         Handouts:  (
English) (Spanish)

    California Model Hospital Policy #9: Mothers and infants should be encouraged 
                                                        to remain together during the hospital stay.

    Baby Friendly Policy # 7:Practice “rooming in”-- allow mothers and infants to remain together 24 hours a day


Secrets of Baby Behavior :
   The UC Davis Lactation Center maintains an excellent website which provides true 
   evidence-based information written by researchers who are also experiencing, or 
   have experienced childbirth and the trials and tribulations of being new parents: 
   You may find it helpful to start with the first five, starting with: 
    - It’s Not Rocket Science 
    - Baby Behavior Basics Part 1 - Three Reasons Why Babies Don’t Sleep Through the Night 
    - Baby Behavior Basics Part 2 - The Many Moods of Babies
    - Baby Behavior Basics Part 3: Learning and Creating Your Baby’s Special Language
    - Baby Behavior Basics Part 4: Crying: Your Baby’s Super Power. 

  Scholarly literature search ;

SIDS (see Sudden Infant Death and Co-Sleeping)

Simply Herbal:

Skin to Skin Contact:
     Skin to skin in an NICU:

    Cochrane Report: Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants (Review)
  California Model Hospital Policy #5:Nurses, certified nurse midwives, and physicians
  should encourage new mothers to hold their newborns skin to skin during the
  first two hours following birth and as much as possible thereafter, unless contraindicated.

  Baby Friendly Step 4:Help mothers initiate breastfeeding within one hour of birth 

Infant sleep: Secrets of Baby Behaviors; The Science of Infant Sleep
    Why we don't like Sleep Training for Infants: Part IPart II


    KellyMom: Breastfeeding and Cigarette Smoking

    If I smoke, can I still breastfeed

    La Leche League International:   
        Is it safe for a smoker to breastfeed her baby? 
        What about using the nicotine patch and other smoking cessation aids?


         Starting Solids - Baby Led Weaning:
            Gil Rapley: 
               Healthcare professionals’ and mothers’ knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, 
                Baby-Led Weaning: a content analysis study 
                BMJ Open 2:e001542 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001542 
             Utilizing the Baby-led weaning: English Website:
             Baby Led Weaning - Spanish website: 

        Frequently Asked Questions:

         Secrets of Baby Behavior: Starting Solids it's worth the wait.


Spanish breastfeeding information        

        BreastMilk Counts:  
        La Leche League:
        US Gov:
        Dar de Mamar: 
        Proyecto Lacta (Puerto Rico – high reading level)
        Women’s Health *Spanish*
    Practicing Medical Spanish:
    Teach Me Medical Spanish:

Statistics on Breastfeeding:


Solano County
    Solano County Fact Sheet -
2011: (27th in the state in Exclusive Breastfeeding Rates)

United States:

                This improvement in initiation represents the largest annual increase over the previous decade. 
                    Breastfeeding at 6 months increased from 44.3% to 47.2%; 
                    Breastfeeding at 12 months increased from 23.8% to 25.5%.

Stopping breast milk production (see "Suppression of Breast Milk Production")

Storage of Breast Milk
        La Leche League Update:
        Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol #8:
            Human Milk Storage Information for Home Use for Full-Term Infants (updated 2010)

        Dr. Jack Newman instructions on expressing milk

        Wash hands prior to pumping, and wash pump and bottles carefully, 
        especially when pumping for a baby in intensive care.  
Student Rights to Breastfeed
      California Education Code Related to
Lactation Accommodation in California Public Schools
         (Added by Stats. 2015, Ch. 690, Sec. 2. Effective January 1, 2016.)
Facts About Lactation Accommodation in California Public Schools

      Report on Pregnant and Parenting Students, from California (See Press Release
                The American Civil Liberties Union of California has released a new report entitled:  
                Breaking Down Educational Barriers for California's Pregnant & Parenting Students
                The report contains four key findings, including:
                 - a lack of adequate spaces to breastfeed or express human milk, 
                 - state and district level recommendations to create more equitable access to quality education. 
            The ACLU of Northern California also has released the student guide:
                     Know Your Rights: Pregnant & Parenting Students
        Students and Breastfeeding: Advocating for Pregnant and Parenting Students 

        Students should have rights to pump on Campus 

Sudden Infant Death and Co-Sleeping
    Infant Sleep Information Source (
     CDPH: Guidance for Local Health Jurisdictions and Communities Addressing Infant Safe Sleep Environments
     Safe Sleep for You and Your Baby : A Guide for Breastfeeding Families   


    Supplementation Guidelines
    Supplementation Protocol - Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine 
    How much to supplement
    Finish at the Breast: 

    Supplementation Tools
    At-breast supplementors: 
        Medela Supplemental Nursing System
    Bottle feeding as a tool to support breastfeeding: 
    Haberman Feeder - video on its use: 
    Inserting a lactation aid: (Dr. Jack Newman Video) 

Suppression of Breast Milk Production 


Tandem Breastfeeding - breastfeeding two or more children of different ages
        La Leche League: 
        Kelly Mom
Teen Resources: 

       BreastMilkCounts website: 
       Encouraging a Teen mom to Breastfeed:
       California Department of Public Health: Infant Feeding Guidelines: 
       Texas WIC Class for Teen Moms: 
       Video: Better Breastfeeding: A Guide for Teen Parents

Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

Texas Breastfeeding Promotion, Texas Department of State Health Services  

Texting Breastfeeding Information:
    Breastfeeding Texting Campaign, from NY 
        The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has launched Mobile Milk
        a text messaging campaign to encourage and support breastfeeding. Text messages are 
        delivered between 28 weeks of pregnancy and four months after birth. During pregnancy, 
        women receive 1–2 messages per week, which provide information and tips for preparing 
        to breastfeed. After delivery, mothers receive text messages 3–4 times per week, providing 
        guidance and support during the first weeks and months of breastfeeding. 
        To sign up, text "MILK" to 877877.

Thrush (Candida)
    Yeast Infections and Thrush - Pictures
    Additional Resources:
    Kellymom: Thrush Resources
    Dr. Jack Newman Candida Protocol (2009)
        Using Gentian Violet (2009)
    Dr. Jay Gordon: The Identification and Treatment of Thrush    
    La Leche League International: Is thrush causing my sore nipples (2006)
  CAUTION - at times it is not Thrush, but other medical or mechanical issues:
    It's Thrush - or is it?
   If mother and baby are both receiving treatment for Thrush and report little relief in 3 – 4 days:
   • Conduct a re-assessment of breastfeeding: Positioning and latch, tongue tie, etc. AND
   • Refer back to Primary caregivers to rule out other causes (i.e. Raynaud’s, bacterial infections, etc.) 

Tongue Tie (Ankyloglossia) (Also see "Frenulum" pictures and assessment)
    Professional information
        American Academy of Pediatrics: 
            Frenotomy for breastfed tongue-tied infants: a fresh look at an old procedure  (2012)                        
       California Perinatal Quality Care Consortium; Tongue Tie:
        Cincinnati Children's Hospital and Medical Center (CCHMC) Grand Rounds. 
            Much will not be new for IBCLCs, but listen to the discussion near the end: 
        Dr. James  Murphy’s Clinical Pearl for diagnosing tongue tie:
        Dr. Lawrence Kotlow PowerPoint: 
                Dr. Kotlow demonstrates how to assess a posterior tongue tie:
                                Dr. Kotlow articles and publications:     
        Hazelbaker Score Assessment for Tongue Tie: 
        Swallow study (using Haberman feeder) of a baby with tongue tie: 
        Tongue Tie: from confusion to clarity: 
        Questions and answers:
            An Interview with Catherine Watson-Genna (
                Starts at 6 minutes, but has an excellent point r/t child care and lack of support for breastfeeding moms

   Historical Information:  
        Brian Palmer DDS Powerpoints, presentations and videos: 
    Parent information: 
Breastfeeding a baby with tongue tie:  
       Tell me about tongue ties (Breastfeeding USA) 
        Tongue Tie help (Catherine Watson-Genna)       
          Birth Boot Camp: Tongue Tie and Breastfeeding

        Post Surgery Exercises:
            Luna Lactation
            Pediatrician Dr.Rajeef Agarwal: Post Fenotomy Exercises

TOXNET:Drugs and other chemicals to which breastfeeding mothers may be exposed 
    LactMed: Drugs and Lactation Database.

    "Breastfeeding should not be discouraged for women being treated with the first-line 
      antituberculosis drugs because the concentrations of these drugs in breast milk are
      too small  to produce toxicity in the nursing newborn. For the same reason, drugs
      in breast milk are not n effective treatment for TB disease or LTBI in a nursing
       infant. Breastfeeding women taking INH should also take pyridoxine (vitamin B6) 
    supplementation." (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
     (If Newly-delivered mother was recently diagnosed, she may need temporary
      interruption when initiating medications) New York State Department of Health


Toddler and Beyond - Breastfeeding
            Breastfeeding After A Year
                    Best for Babes 
                   La Leche League
                   KellyMom-Breastfeeding Past Infancy   

    With Baby: Lactation Training: Tips for traveling with your baby 
    Without Baby: Lacation Training: Tips for traveling without your baby

Tru-Breast ( Humor )

        Karen Gromada :
        Multiple Birth (Center for the Study of )  
        Twins(Position photo) 
        Twins: Attachment Parenting
        Twins discussion group:  
        Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) Foundation 


UC Davis Human Lactation Center

UC Davis Breastfeeding Support Program 

United States Breastfeeding Committee (USBC)

UNICEF – United Nations Children’s Fund/Breastfeeding

Upledger Institute  ( CST Practitioners & Training )

U.S. DHHS, Office on Women’s Health, National Women’s Health Information Center

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (US DHHS)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources and Services Administration  


    Professional resources/information     video clips:  
            (see their “Old” section for more…)
        Breastfeeding Ultrasound: 
        International Breastfeeding Centre (Dr. Jack Newman): English  Spanish
                Inserting a lactation Aid
                Tongue tie release
            Other video clips by Dr. Jack Newman: (Link
           UNICEF Audio/Videos: 

        The Magical Hour:
            Based on the research of Anne Marie Widstrom's 9 stages after birth:  

  • Stage 1: The Birth Cry The first stage is the birth cry. This distinctive cry occurs immediately after birth as the baby’s lungs expand.
  • Stage 2: Relaxation The second stage is the relaxation stage. During the relaxation stage, the newborn exhibits no mouth movements and the hands are relaxed. This stage usually begins when the birth cry has stopped. The baby is skin to skin with the mother and covered with a warm, dry towel or blanket.
  • Stage 3: Awakening The third stage is the awakening stage. During this stage the newborn exhibits small thrusts of movement in the head and shoulders. This stage usually begins about 3 minutes after birth. The newborn in the awakening stage may exhibit head movements, open his eyes, show some mouth activity and might move his shoulders.
  • Stage 4: Activity The fourth stage is the activity stage. During this stage, the newborn begins to make increased mouthing and sucking movements as the rooting reflex becomes more obvious. This stage usually begins about 8 minutes after birth.
  • Stage 5: Rest At any point, the baby may rest. The baby may have periods of resting between periods of activity throughout the first hour or so after birth.
  • Stage 6: Crawling The sixth stage is the crawling stage. The baby approaches the breast during this stage with short periods of action that result in reaching the breast and nipple. This stage usually begins about 35 minutes after birth.
  • Stage 7: Familiarization The seventh stage is called familiarization. During this stage, the newborn becomes acquainted with the mother by licking the nipple and touching and massaging her breast. This stage usually begins around 45 minutes after birth and could last for 20 minutes or more.
  • Stage 8: Suckling The eighth stage is suckling. During this stage, the newborn takes the nipple, self attaches and suckles. This early experience of learning to breastfeed usually begins about an hour after birth. If the mother has had analgesia/anesthesia during labor, it may take more time with skin to skin for the baby to complete the stages and begin suckling.
  • Stage 9: Sleep  The final stage is sleep. The baby and sometimes the mother fall into a restful sleep. Babies usually fall asleep about 1½ to 2 hours after birth.

Patient DVD/Video Resources/Information
       Getting to Know Your Baby:        

        Hand expression:          

        Laid Back Breastfeeding (Biological Nurturing) 

        Maximizing pumping production: 

        Nursing Is Normal: 

On-line Videos:      

           Breastfeeding Videos by Nancy Mohrbacher - great to provide links to moms
           Breastfeeding Naturally: New Zealand Health Ministry (New Zealand Accents!) 

           Teach me how to breastfeed - Fun way to learn the facts about breastfeeding
           United Kingdom: 
                Baby Communication 
                   Ways of supporting your sick or premature baby 
                    Small Wonders on-line 
                    Hand expression  
                    Skin to skin in an NICU 
                    Bathing your baby: Daddy giving the first bath to a preemie and parents learn to care for their preemie 
                From Bump to Breastfeeding


         Baby led weaning - allowing baby to start solid foods on their own - see "Solids"
         Frequently Asked Questions:
         Weaning Techniques:

Weaning due to Medical conditions or medications:
        Temporary suspension of breastfeeding (even for a short period of time) 
Permanent cessation of breastfeeding (contact baby's health care provider to discuss appropriate feeding choices)

Weight Loss Surgery and Breastfeeding (see "Bariatric Surgery")

Weight loss charts: 7%, 10% as well as Weight Loss Calculator

 weight tool (Newborn): 
      These newborn weight loss nomograms demonstrate percentiles for weight loss by delivery mode 
      for those who are exclusively breastfed. The nomograms can be used for early identification of 
      neonates on a trajectory for greater weight loss and related morbidities.

Womanly Art of Breastfeeding:

Women’s Health *Spanish*

Wellstart International

WIC – Food & Nutrition Service FNS USDA        
                Loving support makes breastfeeding work

                 Loving Support Peer Counselor Training

WIC - California:     
        Handouts for Moms:

WIC - Solano County

Working Mothers:  (See also: "Lactation Accommodation Law", "Child Care", "Bottle Feeding")

         Supporting Nursing Moms at Work: Employer Solutions: from

            Breastfeeding Works:
                Resources: Eng/Sp Handouts for parents and caregivers. 
                Self Advocacy Tool Kit
            California Department of Public Health (CDPH): 
                Going Back to Work or School website:
                Information for CDPH employees:
          Pumping Strategies for Working Mothers
                Work and pump            
                Video: Maximizing milk production through hand expression  
         Example of Workplace Lactation Consultants:  

World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA)
    WABA Breastfeeding Gateway:  Up to date information on Breastfeeding and Human Lactation

World Breastfeeding Week (WBW)

World Health Organization (WHO) Breastfeeding 
        World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes
                Explanation of the Code:
                Code Monitoring - International:
                US Code Monitoring:
                    Latest report:

WHO Global Data Bank on Breastfeeding  


X-Rays - See "Radiocontrast Agents"
    (x-Ray, MRI, Ultrasound) usually no problem with breastfeeding
    Breastfeeding and Radiological Procedures


YouTube Videos
    "Teach me how to Breastfeed"